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Ammonium nitrate is widely used as a fertilizer in the agricultural industry. The press and other media have used the term ANFO loosely and imprecisely in describing improvised explosive ahfo IEDsin cases of fertilizer bombs see Malicious use below.
November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Retrieved 12 August In other projects Wikimedia Commons. In JanuaryPresident Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan also issued a decree banning the use, production, storage, purchase, or sale of ammonium nitrate, after an investigation showed militants in the Taliban insurgency had used the substance in bomb attacks.
These voids are necessary to sensitize ANFO: AN is highly hygroscopicreadily absorbing water from air.
In practice, a slight excess of fuel oil is added, as underdosing results in reduced performance while overdosing merely results in more post-blast fumes. When used in wet mining conditions, considerable effort must be taken to remove standing water and install a liner in the borehole; it is generally more productive to instead use a water-resistant explosive such as emulsion.
Light Anfo – Enaex
Retrieved from ” https: In the mining industry, the term ANFO specifically describes a mixture of solid ammonium nitrate prills explowivo diesel fuel. A larger quantity of secondary explosive, known as a primer or a boostermust be used. This article needs additional citations for verification. The fuel component of ANFO is typically diesel, but kerosenecoal dust, racing fuel, or even molasses have been used instead.
Retrieved 3 March Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. It is composed of a mixture of ammonium nitrate and petroleum, correctly balanced in oxygen, explosivvo also contains anti-static additives, which permit pneumatic loading. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
ANFO – Wikipedia
Retrieved 28 July October Learn how and when to remove this template message. Depending on the detonation impetus for example a 6 versus a 10 detonatorthe products of the detonation can be decidedly unstoichiometric. The New York Times. Retrieved March wxplosivo, This page was last edited on 1 Decemberat ANFO is a tertiary explosivemeaning that it cannot be set off by the small quantity of primary explosive in a typical blasting cap.
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ANFO under most conditions is blasting cap —insensitive, so it is classified as a blasting agent  and not a high explosive. Archived from the original on 7 June In practical use, such conditions are impossible to attain, and blasts produce moderate amounts of toxic gases such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides NO x.
In an ideal stoichiometrically balanced reaction, ANFO is composed of about While many fuels can theoretically be used, the low volatility and cost of diesel make it ideal.
The Shijiazhuang bombings Chinese: In humid environments, absorbed water interferes with explodivo explosive function. The balanced equation is as follows:. Unmixed ammonium nitrate can decompose explosively and has been responsible for several industrial disasters, including the Oppau explosion in Germany, the Texas City disaster in Texas City, Texasthe Ryongchon disaster in North Koreaand the West Fertilizer Company explosion in West, Texas.
Improvised bombs made with agricultural-grade AN are less sensitive and less efficient than the explosive-grade variety.