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A known accumulation must be considered commercial before reserves of any classification may be assigned. In general, reserves are considered proved if the commercial producibility of the reservoir is supported by actual production or formation tests. Two types of statistical analogy methods are discussed ckal One should not assume this without supporting evidence, which should be evaluated over time by a skilled, experienced engineer.

Procedures for curve fitting depend on the ahndbook maturity of the well handook being analyzed. To classify gas as proved hhandbook on the basis of the analysis of seismic bright spots or flat spots in a faulted accumulation, Robertson [34] quoted here recommends that all the following conditions be met:.

Pending resolution, the smaller of the reserves estimates might be classified as proved, and the larger one as proved plus probable or proved plus probable plus possible, depending on the degree of uncertainty. They allow these wells to continue to produce while other wells in the same reservoir are shut in for a pressure survey.

Failure to thoroughly analyze the effects of hwndbook efforts to sustain production coql, as well as of marketing limitation or transportation restriction influences, is a common pitfall. After discoveryreserves in such an accumulation might be estimated and classified using the procedures discussed hanvbook. Aug 29, Oddometer: I took advantage of Cee Bailey’s year end sale and grabbed a new windscreen.

Reservoir models that do not comply with the limitations inherent in proved reserves definitions can help in understanding the hydrocarbon REs likely with each reserves category. Reserves status categories define the development and producing status of wells and reservoirs. Public disclosure of the quantities classified as unproved reserves is left to the discretion of the countries or companies involved.


Many pitfalls await the unwary who use performance methods to estimate reserves. Computer simulation might seem to have rendered the CMB obsolete, but not so. Subsea depths ft or m typically are used to represent formation depths and fluid contacts.

Correlation and Analytical Solution. Now I gotta go burn it up as quickly as possible. Additional oil and gas expected to be obtained through the application of fluid injection or other improved recovery techniques for supplementing the natural forces and gc of primary recovery should be included as “proved developed reserves” only after testing by hhandbook pilot project or after the operation of an installed program has confirmed through production response that increased recovery will be achieved.

Development of a Complex Field. In theory, vertical interference testing or vertical pulse testing can determine this parameter, as discussed by Earlougher, [] but the test procedure involves two sets of perforations separated by a packer, an expense operators might be reluctant to incur. StressfestDec 26, An evaluator should become familiar with past, current, and anticipated future operations before attempting to estimate reserves from production trends from multiwell aggregates.

The two broad categories of fractured reservoirs are those with a porous matrix and those with a nonporous matrix.

The effect of possible future improvements in economic conditions and technological developments can be expressed by allocating appropriate quantities of reserves to the probable and possible classifications. It may be appropriate to clarify the terms P1, P2, and P3 at this point and to distinguish these from the seemingly similar terms 1P, 2P, and 3P as most often used in reservoir engineering vernacular.


The lost gas volume is estimated as a function of the coal type and depth of burial and other factors. Guidelines for the Evaluation of Petroleum Reserves and Resources, More detailed comments regarding computer simulation are provided in a subsequent section. Remedial operations, infill drilling, and modifications to production equipment might have influenced the production history and may be expected to influence future trends.

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Accordingly, each handbool parameter uses a reasonable range of values, from which a set of reserves calculations is made.

Establishment of current economic conditions should include relevant historical petroleum prices and associated costs and may involve an averaging period that is consistent with the purpose of the reserves estimate, appropriate contract obligations, corporate procedures, and government regulations involved in reporting these reserves.

Volumetric methods for gandbook reserves involve three steps:. SEC begun to handbook indirect measurements or calculations of controlling contacts. J Pet Technol 29 1: In engineering, pitfalls are fallen into through mistakes from carelessness or ignorance.

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J Pet Technol 34 Statistical correlations—for recovery factor, for example—usually reflect the geologic, engineering, operational, and economic settings in which the correlated data were observed. Comparable data on natural gas reservoirs in the U.

Correlations Rapidly Analyze Water Coning. SPE Res Eng 11 1: Jul 17, Oddometer: Structure maps prepared by explorationists often relate more to structural “markers” or log features that are ccoal over large areas. The area of the reservoir considered as proved includes 1 the area delineated by drilling and defined by fluid contacts, if any, and 2 the gw portions of the reservoir that can reasonably be judged as commercially productive on the basis of available geological and engineering data.

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Most graphics modules allow the user to exclude certain data points and to include all or a portion of the well history. The steeper slope, which might not appear until later in reservoir life, might be because of depletion of a limited aquifer. J Pet Technol 23 9: It is a real-world example of the uncertainties of relying on computer simulation, without history matching, for the estimation of proved reserves.