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View at Google Scholar P. Diarrhea and cough are two symptoms associated with gastrointestinal and respiratory infections, respectively. However, the toxicity of the mistletoe species should be assessed. Medicinal plants with pharmacological evidence of their pzra effects. Proliferation of murine primary lymphocytes 2. Recently, it was described that this plant induces hepatotoxicity [ 97 ].
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Some of the medicinal plants cited in our survey have been pharmacologically uerbolaria. Articles from Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Seminars in Cancer Biology.
A total of 12 compounds isolated from medicinal plants used as immunostimulants have been tested using in vitro 11 compounds and in vivo 2 compounds assays. The isolation and elucidation of the structure of bioactive principles should also be encouraged.
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Pharmacological studies have been conducted on 29 of the plants, including extracts and compounds, whereas 75 plants lack pharmacological studies regarding their immunostimulatory activity.
Proliferation of human primary lymphocytes 6. Taking this into consideration, further studies with plants from the Smilax and Juglans genera should be carried out. An immunostimulatory agent is responsible for strengthening the resistance of the body against pathogens.
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Finally, this review highlights the need to perform pharmacological, phytochemical, toxicological, and ethnobotanical studies with medicinal flora, from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, to obtain new immunostimulatory agents. This is an open access article distributed under hrbolaria Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
This was confirmed, for many plant species, by consulting our previous work [ 94 ]. Preliminary studies of the immunomodulator effect of the Bougainvillea xbuttiana extract in a mouse model. Induction of phagocytosis of Candida albicans 2. We may therefore infer that immunostimulatory plants may also be used for the treatment and prevention of infections. These two components inhibit the mitochondrial respiration and the DNA replication of pathogens and cancer cells [ 7 ].
In vitro immunomodulatory effects saldu ten commonly used herbs on murine lymphocytes. The immunostimulatory effects obtained using in vitro studies were confirmed in in vivo studies for some plant species such as Mollugo verticillataPhoradendron serotinumand Petiveria alliacea and compounds such as maturin acetate Figure 1.
Only two compounds, isolated from two plants, were studied using in vivo models Table 5. Open in a separate window. A literature search was conducted from December to July by analyzing the published scientific material on native medicinal flora from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. In vitro immunostimulatory hefbolaria of plant compounds.
Medicinal Plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Used as Immunostimulants
Some of the medicinal plants cited in our survey have been pharmacologically investigated. Viscaceae is associated with the release of immunity-related cytokines. Innate immunity consists of cells such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and natural killer NK cells, which are the salhd line of host defence [ 23 ]. Furthermore, mistletoe species such as Phoradendron brachystachyum and Psittacanthus calyculathus could be a good option for discovering immunostimulatory agents since the related species Phoradendron serotinum showed good immunostimulatory activity [ 41 ].
In many studies, a single immunostimulant test is used e. Chemical structures of some compounds with immunostimulatory effects isolated from medicinal plants. More ethnobotanical studies are necessary to provide information on medicinal plants used as immunostimulants in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. In vitro immunopotentiating properties and tumour cell toxicity induced by Lophophora williamsii Peyote cactus methanolic extract.
Plantas Medicinales del Estado de Veracruz. The conservation of these species, as well as their habitats, should be encouraged by national and oaxauqea programs to preserve biodiversity. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. Some of the in vitro and in vivo tests used to evaluate the immunostimulatory effects of plant extracts and compounds include the following: The interleukins link the communication between cells of the immune system, facilitating innate immune reactions.
This information will be useful for developing preclinical and clinical studies with the plants cited in this review. La Biodiversidad en Guanajuato: In slaud of importance, the most recommended plant species used as immunostimulants are Justicia spicigeraPolygonum aviculareCarlowrightia cordifolia, Amphipterygium adstringens, Uncaria tomentosa, and others. International Review of Cytology.
Table 6 Medicinal plants used as immunostimulants with no pharmacological studies. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico; Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales. Its way of preparation consists of the following: Authors are encouraged to perform more than one immunostimulatory test in further studies to provide more information on the immunostimulant effects of plant extracts or compounds.
In vivo studies mainly consist in the induction of an immunosuppressed state in the herbolaaria by using a chemical agents such as 5-fluorouracil, cyclophosphamide, and methotrexate or b biological agents such as tumorigenic cells.
Masticadienonic acid Triterpenoid 0. Llanes-Coronel, Actividad inmunomoduladora de 10 plantas de la familia Euphorbiaceae [M.
Vademecum de plantas medicinales del municipio de puente nacional, Veracruz [Bachelor thesis] Xalapa, Mexico: The ethnomedicinal information of plant species will be hsrbolaria with these studies.