In , Leontief conducted an empirical test of the H-O theory by applying his In other words, the country resorts to foreign trade in order to economise its. This result has come to be known as the Leontief Paradox. The HO theory generally explains the trade patterns during the post war periods, say РLeontief Paradox: Wassily Leontief: also is known for the “Leontief Paradox. In international trade: Factor endowments: the Heckscher-Ohlin theory.

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If HOV prediction is not materialized in the real world, it is an indication that there is a serious distortion in the economy.

Leontief Paradox | political economics |

They said that Japan’s place in the world was somewhere between the advanced and LDCs. The human capital was overlooked completely.

Theories of Development of the Terms of Trade. A, the major trading partner of Canada, were relatively more capital- intensive than her imports. In contrast, imports from capital- abundant countries are subjected too much lower rates of tariff. Had he done so and compared, for instance, the factor intensities in American export industries with those of Japan or Western Europe, he might well have found that American exports were capital intensive compared to Japan or Western Europe exports.

Leontief paradox | Augusta Nduka –

Thus a capital- abundant country would have a bias in flavor of capital-intensive goods that could prevail over its factor abundance. Similarly, New Trade Theory argues that comparative advantages can develop separately from factor endowment variation e. But still, if H-O theory was correct, its import-substitutes should be less capital-intensive than its exports. Leontief himself tried to puzzle out his own paradox by arguing that American labor is three times more productive than world labor as a result of a fervid entrepreneurship, an outstanding economic framework and a favorable environment with plenty of incentives Leontief, There is no doubt that the productivity of labour is higher in the United States than in other countries.


Most economists might acknowledge the superior quality of U. Even working with the same amount of capital, the U. Thus, one can say that the above is a more general definition of factor abundance. All these variables are intimately linked together and it is not possible to change one of them without changing all the others.

However, Indian trade with the US was not. The one he gave priority ran in terms of differences in labour productivity. The writers like B.

What is Leontief Paradox Trade Theory

Casas and Choi computed the trade pattern that would have prevailed had trade been balanced in Trade, American Economic Review 61, no. Leontief should have seen whether or not goods imported into America were capital or labour intensive in the country of origin. In addition, US have been heavily subsidising its agriculture and exporting and dominating world markets in agricultural products.

Kreinin conducted a survey of engineers and managers, and tried to test whether an average American worker is three times as effective as a foreign worker. As the over-pricing leongief labour and underpricing of capital cause factor-price distortion, there is likelihood that the labour-surplus and capital-scarce countries like India export capital-intensive goods and import labour-intensive goods.


The Leontief Paradox to Heckscher-Ohlin Theory | Economics

Apart from that, the model is depending on vulnerable and unrealistic assumptions. This has also been stressed by E.

Most of Canadian trade was with the US. Me computed for various industries the direct and indirect capital and labour required to produce a given dollar value of output. He pointed out that the United States leonitef a trade surplus in and there was little evidence that exports were labour- intensive.

Capital and Labor Requirements to produce one million dollars’ worth of the typical exportable and importable bundles in S exports are more capital intensive relative to U. However, tdade her trade with the United States, the exports were capital-intensive and imports were labour-intensive.

Journal of Political Economy.

These products are more capital intensive than trare other products. While there has not been much empirical evidence about the possibility of factor intensity reversals, FIR is real.

If a country runs a trade surplus, then it will automatically be a net exporter of the intensively used factor of the exported good. Specifically, a lower interest results in a greater amount of human capital in the export sector.

The higher productivity of the American labour was attributed by him to better organization and entrepreneurship in the United States than in other countries.